Vestigiality, adaptionist and reproductive views Whether the clitoris is , an , or serves a function has also been debated. This model, first designed with , was subsequently exhibited at the , the largest science museum in Europe. These reports sometimes conflict with other sources on clitoral anatomy or those concerning the nerve endings in the human penis. The clitoris is a complex structure, and its size and sensitivity can vary. De re anatomica In 1545, was the first writer to identify the clitoris in a work based on dissection, but he concluded that it had a urinary function.
The clitoral hood projects at , where the edges of the outer lips meet at the base of the pubic mound; it is partially formed by fusion of the upper part of the external folds of the labia minora inner lips and covers the glans and external shaft. She says that ignorance of this still seems to be pervasive in modern society. There is no identified correlation between the size of the clitoral glans, or clitoris as a whole, and a woman's age, height, weight, use of , or being , although women who have given birth may have significantly larger clitoral measurements. It has a formed by the inner lips. Initially undifferentiated, the tubercle develops into either a penis or a clitoris during the depending on exposure to which are primarily male hormones. If orgasm is not achieved, the clitoris may remain engorged for a few hours, which women often find uncomfortable. Some sources state that it continues until the twelfth week, while others state that it is clearly evident by the thirteenth week and that the sex organs are fully developed by the sixteenth week.
Initially undifferentiated, the tubercle develops into either a clitoris or penis during the depending on exposure to which are primarily male hormones. Use of by bodybuilders and other athletes can result in significant enlargement of the clitoris in concert with other masculinizing effects on their bodies. Stimulation of the labia minora inner lips , due to its external connection with the glans and hood, may have the same effect as direct clitoral stimulation. Gross anatomy and histology General Clitoris; deep dissection The clitoris contains external and internal components. Besides enlargement, congenital abnormalities of the clitoris may also include agenesis or hypoplasia.
Like Falloppio and Bartholin, De Graaf criticized Colombo's claim of having discovered the clitoris; his work appears to have provided the first comprehensive account of clitoral anatomy. The glans may be noted as having glanular vascular spaces that are not as prominent as those in the clitoral body, with the spaces being separated more by smooth muscle than in the body and crura. The clitoris is the human female's most sensitive and generally the primary source of human female pleasure. Beneath the of the vascular areas is. Associated are the , , a network of nerves and blood vessels, the , muscles and the. Due to the glans's high sensitivity, direct stimulation to it is not always pleasurable; instead, direct stimulation to the hood or the areas near the glans are often more pleasurable, with the majority of women preferring to use the hood to stimulate the glans, or to have the glans rolled between the lips of the labia, for indirect touch. The area near the entrance of the vagina the lower third contains nearly 90 percent of the vaginal nerve endings, and there are areas in the anterior vaginal wall and between the top junction of the labia minora and the urethra that are especially sensitive, but intense sexual pleasure, including orgasm, solely from vaginal stimulation is occasional or otherwise absent because the vagina has significantly fewer nerve endings than the clitoris.
The female possesses no external vagina, as the labia are fused to form a pseudo-scrotum. In 's survey of 1978—1997 — which contains over a million documents from over 6,000 scientific journals — 539 articles focusing on the penis were found, while 7 were found focusing on the clitoris. Studies in Gender and Sexuality. Colombo's claim was disputed by his successor at Padua, discoverer of the , who claimed that he was the first to discover the clitoris. In Neill, Jimmy D ed. The research came at the time of the , which inspired feminists to reject the distinction made between clitoral and vaginal orgasms. They observed that both clitoral and vaginal orgasms have the same stages of physical response, and found that the majority of their subjects could only achieve clitoral orgasms, while a minority achieved vaginal orgasms.
Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Glans and body An exposed clitoral glans Highly , the glans exists at the tip of the clitoral body as a -vascular cap, and is usually the size and shape of a pea, although it is sometimes much larger or smaller. Human Reproduction at a Glance. O'Connell describes typical textbook descriptions of the clitoris as lacking detail and including inaccuracies, such as older and modern anatomical descriptions of the female human urethral and genital anatomy having been based on dissections performed on elderly cadavers whose erectile clitoral tissue had shrunk. Many women 70—80% require manual clitoral stimulation. They concluded that some females have more extensive clitoral tissues and nerves than others, especially having observed this in young cadavers compared to elderly ones, and therefore whereas the majority of females can only achieve orgasm by direct stimulation of the external parts of the clitoris, the stimulation of the more generalized tissues of the clitoris via vaginal intercourse may be sufficient for others.
The trabeculated tissue has a ; along with blood, it fills the large, dilated vascular spaces of the clitoris and the bulbs. The , , and Greek and Roman generations up to and throughout the , were aware that male and female sex organs are anatomically similar, but prominent anatomists, notably 129 — c. After giving birth, the pseudo-penis is stretched and loses much of its original aspects; it becomes a slack-walled and reduced prepuce with an enlarged orifice with split lips. Female genital mutilation is carried out in several societies, especially in Africa, with 85 percent of genital mutilations performed in Africa consisting of clitoridectomy or excision, and to a lesser extent in other parts of the Middle East and Southeast Asia, on girls from a few days old to mid-adolescent, often to reduce sexual desire in an effort to preserve vaginal. The amount of time of sexual arousal needed to reach orgasm is variable — and usually much longer — in women than in men; thus, only 20—30% of women attain a coital climax. Puppo's belief contrasts the general belief among researchers that vaginal orgasms are the result of clitoral stimulation; they reaffirm that clitoral tissue extends, or is at least stimulated by its bulbs, even in the area most commonly reported to be the G-spot. Clitoral and vaginal orgasmic factors Further information: General statistics indicate that 70—80 percent of women require direct clitoral stimulation consistent manual, oral or other concentrated friction against the external parts of the clitoris to reach orgasm.
Although 17th-century midwives recommended to men and women that women should aspire to achieve orgasms to help them get pregnant for general health and well-being and to keep their relationships healthy, debate about the importance of the clitoris persisted, notably in the work of in the 17th century and in the 19th. The students were overwhelmingly educated to believe that the vagina is the female counterpart of the penis. They additionally analyzed 57 books listed in a computer database for sex instruction. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism. . With regard to the Y-shape of the cavernosa — crown, body, and legs — the body accounts for much more of the structure in men, and the legs are stubbier; typically, the cavernosa are longer and thicker in males than in females.
Pressing the penis in a gliding or circular motion against the clitoris , or stimulating it by movement against another body part, may also be practiced. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. The male corpora cavernosa are homologous to the corpus cavernosum clitoridis the female cavernosa , the also known as the bulb of the corpus spongiosum penis is homologous to the vestibular bulbs beneath the labia minora, and the is homologous to the labia minora and labia majora. The spotted hyenas have a highly erectile clitoris, complete with a false scrotum; author John C. We are living in a male society which has not sought change in women's role. A 1992 study concluded that the total clitoral length, including glans and body, is 16.
On the basis of their findings, they argued that women may be able to achieve vaginal orgasm via stimulation of the G-spot, because the highly innervated clitoris is pulled closely to the anterior wall of the vagina when the woman is sexually aroused and during vaginal penetration. Archived from on 29 June 2011. Concerning other studies, researchers from the in London measured the and other genital structures of 50 women from the age of 18 to 50, with a age of 35. There is considerable variation in how much of the glans protrudes from the hood and how much is covered by it, ranging from completely covered to fully exposed, and tissue of the labia minora also encircles the base of the glans. Concerning other beliefs about the clitoris, Hite 1976 and 1981 found that, during sexual intimacy with a partner, clitoral stimulation was more often described by women as than as a primary method of sexual activity, including orgasm. The vestibular bulbs are typically described as lying close to the crura on either side of the vaginal opening; internally, they are beneath the labia majora.